The examples below assume the following packages are attached:
library(spData) # example datasets library(tmap) # map creation (>=2.3) library(sf) # spatial data classes
Grids and graticules
The tmap package offers two ways to draws coordinate lines -
The role of
tm_grid() is to represent the input data’s coordinates.
For example, the
nz object uses the New Zealand Transverse Mercator projection, with meters as its units.
tm_shape(nz) + tm_polygons() + tm_grid()
tm_graticules() shows longitude lines (meridians) and latitude lines (parallels), with degrees as units (note the degree sign in the example below).
tm_shape(nz) + tm_polygons() + tm_graticules()
tm_graticules() could be placed above or below the main spatial data.
Its position on the map depends on its place in the code.
tm_graticules() are placed after the code drawing geometry (e.g.
tm_polygons()), the grids or graticules are ploted on the top of the map.
On the other hand, when
tm_graticules() are placed before the code drawing geometry (e.g.
tm_polygons()), the grids or graticules are plotted behind the spatial data.
tm_shape(nz) + tm_graticules() + tm_polygons()
Grids and graticules can be easily customized in tmap using several arguments.
The first one,
labels.inside.frame moves the labels inside the map grid (it is set to
FALSE as the default).
tm_shape(nz) + tm_grid(labels.inside.frame = TRUE) + tm_polygons()
The number of horizontal (
x) and vertical (
y) lines can be set using the
Importantly, tmap rounds coordinate values to equally spaced “round” values, so the number of actual labels may be slightly different than set with
tm_shape(nz) + tm_grid(n.x = 4, n.y = 3) + tm_polygons()
tm_graticules() shows ticks and lines.
They can be disabled using
ticks = FALSE and
lines = FALSE.
tm_shape(nz) + tm_grid(ticks = FALSE) + tm_polygons()
lines = FALSE could be useful when presenting raster data.
tm_shape(nz) + tm_grid(lines = FALSE) + tm_polygons()
It is also possible to customize
tm_graticules() apperance, for example by chaning the lines colors (
col), width (
lwd) or labels size (
tm_shape(nz) + tm_grid(col = "red", lwd = 3, labels.size = 0.4) + tm_polygons()
The above examples uses
tm_grid(), but the same arguments apply to the
By default, tmap adds small inner margins between the presented data and the map frame. It works well in many cases, for example, see the map of New Zealand above. However, it does not look perfect for world maps.
tm_shape(world) + tm_graticules() + tm_polygons()
The way to fix this is to use the
tm_layout() function and set its
inner.margins argument to
tm_shape(world) + tm_graticules() + tm_polygons() + tm_layout(inner.margins = 0)